Health and safety issues concerning commercial marketing Of Edible Wild Mushrooms in British Columbia

By Paul Kroeger

Vancouver Mycological Society (VMS) was formed in 1979 by mushroom enthusiasts who mostly shared a common interest in eating wild fungi. When the society was formed part of its stated purpose was “To assist in educating the public in the collection and identification of fungi, with emphasis on the safe separation of edible from toxic fungi.”

Wild mushrooms have gained great popularity and are commercially collected and sold in an unregulated environment and usually without preparation instructions.  Reports of adverse reactions after consuming commercially marketed wild mushrooms are not uncommon. Certain mushrooms that are widely considered edible species appear repeatedly in reports of adverse reactions from mushroom ingestion. See Table 3 p.11: Anomalous edible mushroom poisoning.

Mushroom clubs such as the Vancouver Mycological Society play an important role in informing the public of health hazards associated with eating wild mushrooms and how to avoid them. In this discussion we address some issues surrounding wild mushrooms gathered and distributed as culinary commodities and especially aspects of quality control that effect human health. Similar issues appear in the current “medicinal mushroom” trade but are not addressed here, unless the fungus is also popular for food as well, an example being the Hericium species.

There are a variety of reasons why mushrooms considered edible may cause illness in consumers. Some of these causes and contributing factors are discussed below:

Some species are toxic unless cooked. This is especially relevant with the popular morel mushrooms. In 1991 raw fresh morels were served in a salad at a banquet held in a major Vancouver hotel, and 77 (16%) of the 483 people attending reported illness. Many edible mushrooms contain small amounts of hydrazines and other volatile compounds that are toxic or carcinogenic but are eliminated by cooking.

It should be noted that wild mushrooms offered for sale may have microbial contamination from the environment in which they grow, and from the handling, storage and transportation involved in harvest and marketing. Cooking these mushrooms is thus also an important food hygiene practice.

 Over-mature and poorly stored mushrooms may contain micro-organisms of incipient decay and are often implicated in adverse reactions. Many people involved in marketing mushrooms may not recognize signs of aging and decay in unfamiliar species, or may be reluctant to lose profit by discarding aging product.

Mushrooms can grow in habitats that have a history of human disturbance and mushrooms collected in such areas may contain heavy metals or other chemical contaminants from agricultural, industrial, transportation or other human activities. Certain saprobe fungi such as oyster mushrooms are even used in attempts to remediate contaminated sites.

Wild mushrooms are biochemical factories that create and contain very complex and largely unknown chemistry. It is well known, though,  that many compounds found in fungi have strong antibiotic effects, and it’s suspected that consuming even well known edible species in excess or when improperly prepared can cause gastrointestinal distress by disrupting a person’s natural  intestinal  biota.

Improperly preserved wild mushrooms can cause food-borne illness from microbial toxins. Mushrooms are very high risk for home canning because of their neutral pH and close contact with soil microbes such as Botulinum bacteria. Safe canning requires acidification and thorough pressure processing. Other preservation techniques such as brining and storing under oil have also resulted in serious illnesses.

Several wild mushrooms classified as edible in popular guide books are implicated in multiple reports of adverse reactions among consumers. Some incidents involve factors already discussed such as inadequate cooking, over-consumption or microbial contamination; but others don’t and are attributed to individual sensitivities or intolerances that might be present in a significant portion of the population.  For this reason certain species could be considered as posing too high a risk to consumer health to be safely marketed as edible mushrooms, examples include all Leccinum species or rough-stemmed boletes, and Phaeolepiota aurea.

Wild mushrooms offered for sale in markets have occasionally been misidentified. For example, there have been sporadic observations of the false morel Gyromitra esculenta being represented as true morels! This is potentially serious because false morels contain toxic hydrazines, compounds responsible for both short term acute poisonings and for chronic effects as known carcinogens.

Itinerant or opportunistic pickers of commercial wild mushrooms may have limited mycological knowledge or experience, and the consumer might have even less familiarity with mushrooms. There are currently no requirements ensuring that marketed wild mushrooms are accurately identified. Certain edible species may require considerable mycological expertise to accurately distinguish from problematic look-alikes and should not be marketed unless identified by an experienced mycologist.

There is currently no means of certifying that wild mushrooms offered for sale are correctly identified by individuals with adequate mycological knowledge and experience. Jurisdictions in many other areas have certification programs for wild mushrooms that require inspection of marketed material by individuals certified as having mushroom identification qualifications.

Sometimes marketed wild mushrooms are referred to only by a common name without the technical or scientific binomial. There is currently no standardized system of common names for mushrooms in North America, so to avoid confusion the technical scientific name is important in identifying and labelling marketed mushrooms. It’s desirable to have a standardized list of approved market mushrooms with standardized common names linked to the scientific binomials.

Some ethical and conservation considerations

Mushroom harvest is prohibited in protected park areas such as National, Provincial Regional and most municipal parks and all Ecological Reserves.  Special Management areas and Community forest lands may have restrictions on harvest of non timber forest products (NTFPs) including mushrooms.

Mushrooms growing on First Nations lands are resources belonging to First Nations people. People not of First Nations communities must obtain permission to access those resources.

Certain edible wild mushrooms may become considered “Species at Risk” if declines in their populations or distribution are demonstrated. Continued exploitation of these species would be inappropriate.

Some suggested Guidelines for the commercial wild mushroom market

  • Only those species of wild mushrooms known to be safe and tolerated by most people should be sold. A list of approved market species would be desirable with standardized common names linked to scientific binomial names.

  • A monitoring or inspection and certification system should be established to ensure that marketed wild mushrooms are wholesome and safe for public consumption. This would ensure the mushroom species is approved as safe for consumption, and that the product is neither decayed nor contaminated.
  • To achieve oversight of the commercial wild mushroom industry it will be necessary to have qualified knowledgeable personnel trained to identify approved market mushrooms, possible look-alike species and known poisonous mushrooms. These individuals should also be trained to assess the freshness and suitability for consumption of samples of approved market mushrooms, and to instruct others about identification and quality control of mushrooms.

  • Recommended standards of packaging and labelling should be developed for commercial wild mushrooms. Packaging should be appropriate for reducing potentially harmful spoilage and contamination, for example by requiring wrappings to allow air exchange preventing anaerobic conditions. Labels should clearly identify the mushroom or mushrooms contained and advise cooking before consuming.

  • Basic information on wild mushroom food safety practices should be made available to those dealing with wild mushrooms where produce is marketed and in the restaurant industry. Guidelines for safe mushroom selection, handling, storage and preparation should be developed and disseminated as printed materials or educational courses.

  • The need to cook wild mushrooms before eating should always be clearly communicated to the consumer. “Cook before Eating” labels or stickers are recommended.

  • Sellers and vendors of wild mushrooms should be instructed to be diligent in trimming or culling over-aged or deteriorating mushrooms.

It must be pointed out that attempting to impose mandatory regulatory controls over the wild mushroom trade would probably be challenging and possibly resented; harvest and distribution of mushrooms has developed in an informal atmosphere and operates largely as a grey economy.

Harvest and field buying of mushrooms is a seasonal activity which takes place throughout much of BC around small communities where it provides an irregular but often important source of income for rural populations.

Below are listed some British Columbia mushrooms considered to be good edibles and which are candidates for approved status for commercial trade. Many of these species may make their way to farmers’ market stalls, produce stores or restaurants.

Please note that while some are considered choice and safe for most of us to eat, others can cause problems for certain people or if not properly prepared. These problematic species are indicated with an asterisk* and three types, Chickens of the woods (2 species of Laetiporus) and Lobster mushrooms (Hypomyces lactifluorum), are especially problematic. The Laetiporus were excluded because they have failed to achieve popularity, but Lobster mushrooms are retained because they have.

All wild mushrooms should be cooked before eating.

Table 1: List of potential market wild mushrooms for British Columbia

1)     Boletus edulis group     

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product, seem under-utilized in BC.

2)     Boletus fibrillosus

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product, seem under-utilized in BC.

3)     Boletus mirabilis

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product, seem under-utilized in BC.

4)     Boletus rex-veris

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product, seem under-utilized in BC.

5)     Boletus zelleri

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product, seem under-utilized in BC.

6)     Cantharellus cascadensis

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, mostly fresh market.

7)     Cantharellus formosus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, mostly fresh market.

8)     Cantharellus roseocanus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, mostly fresh market.

9)     Cantherellus subalbidus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, mostly fresh market.

10)  Craterellus cornucopioides

Good market mushroom

Rare in BC. Suitable as dried product.

11)  Craterellus tubaeformis

Good market mushroom

Seems under-utilized in BC. Potential important commercial mushroom

12)  Gomphus clavatus

Good market mushroom

Considered endangered in many parts of Europe, extinct in Britain.

13)  Grifola frondusus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, rare in BC

14)  Hericium abietis

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, increasing in value and of medicinal interest.

15)  Hericium americanus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, increasing in value and of medicinal interest.

16)  Hericium coralloides

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, increasing in value and of medicinal interest.

17)  Hericium erinaceus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom, increasing in value and of medicinal interest. Rare in BC.

18)  Hydnum repandum

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

19)  Hydnum umbilicatum

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

20)  Hypomyces lactifluorum *

problematic

Important commercial species. Quality control issues exist. Causes occasional GI upset.

21)  Imleria badius

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product

22)  Lactarius deliciosus

Good market mushroom

Little known here.

23)  Lactarius deterrimus

Good market mushroom

Little known here.

24)  Lactarius rubrilacteus

Good market mushroom

Little known here.

25)  Lepista nuda

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown. Can grow in contaminated environments.

26)  Lyophyllum decastes

Little known

Identification challenging, tolerances unknown. Can grow in contaminated environments.

27)  Morchella spp. *

problematic

Important commercial mushroom, especially suitable for dried product. Fresh should have “cook before eating” label. Can grow in contaminated environments.

28)  Pleurotus ostreatus

problematic

Competes with cultivated Oyster mushrooms. Wild have quality issues and can grow in contaminated environments.

29)  Polyozellus atrolazulinus

Good market mushroom

Was Polyozellus multiplex. Conservation status of concern, uncertain due to lack of distribution data.

30)  Polyozellus marymargaretae

Good market mushroom

Was Polyozellus multiplex. Conservation status of concern, uncertain due to lack of distribution data.

31)  Rozites caperata

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown

32)  Russula xerampelina

Little known

Identification issues, tolerances unknown

33)  Sparassis crispa

Good market mushroom

Cauliflower mushroom, highly desirable but not well known as market mushroom.

34)  Suillus borealis

Little known

Suitable for dried product

35)  Suillus brevipes

Little known

Suitable for dried product

36)  Suillus granulatus

Little known

Suitable for dried product

37)  Suillus lakei

Little known

Suitable for dried product

38)  Suillus luteus

Little known

Suitable for dried product

39)  Suillus species

Little known

Suitable for dried product

40)  Suillus subolivaceus

Little known

Suitable for dried product

41)  Tricholoma magnivelare

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom. High value almost all fresh market, much exported.

42)  Tuber gibbosum

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

 

How mushroom species were selected as potential market mushrooms

The mushrooms in the preceding list were selected from a larger list of mushrooms, see Table 2 p.7: Some Edible Wild Mushrooms of British Columbia, which are species classified as edible in popular field guides or reported as being sold in British Columbia. Species were eliminated from this larger list if they present problems in ensuring a potential consumer’s health.

Several of these have been recorded as causing negative reactions in sufficient numbers of people to be considered too high risk for a commercial market. See Table 3 p. 11 Anomalous Edible Mushroom Poisoning for a summary of frequently implicated “Edible” mushrooms.

Several saprobic mushrooms are excluded from the approved listing because they often grow in habitats associated with human disturbance and may present a higher than acceptable possibility of environmental contamination. Most are minor edibles not highly valued. Examples of such wild saprobes are Agaricus, Chlorophyllum and Coprinus. See Table 4 p. 12: Edible mushrooms with common names and life style or trophic mode.

 When saprobe mushroom species which might come from contaminated sites are retained on the approved list, it may be desirable to require some documentation of safe provenance. This would apply to such mushrooms as Lepista, LyophyllumMorchella and Pleurotus.

Certain edible mushrooms present a challenge for most people to reliably identify and may closely resemble toxic species. Examples of mushrooms that present identification challenges are Agaricus, Armillaria, Chlorophyllum, Clitopilus, Lepista and Lyophyllum.

Table 2: Some Edible Wild Mushrooms of British Columbia

An asterix (*) following the name indicates mushrooms associated with human illness in mushroom poisoning reports.  Please see also Table 3 p. 11: Anomalous Edible Mushroom Poisonings.

Latin Name

Market suitability

Comments

Agaricus augustus

problematic

Identification problems, tolerances unknown

Agaricus campestris

problematic

Competes with cultivated button mushroom.  Quality control issues.

Armillaria species *

High risk, not suitable

Identification problems, quality control problems. Causes occasional GI upset.

Boletus edulis group     

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product. Seems under-utilized in BC

Boletus fibrillosus

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product

Boletus mirabilis

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product

Boletus rex-veris

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product

Boletus zelleri

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product

Cantharellus cascadensis

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Cantharellus formosus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Cantharellus roseocanus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Cantherellus subalbidus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Catathelasma imperialis

Little known

Little known in BC

Chlorophyllum brunneum

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown, habitat contamination.

Chlorophyllum olivieri

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown, habitat contamination

Chlorophyllum rachodes

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown, habitat contamination

Clitopilus prunulus

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown, habitat contamination

Coprinus comatus

problematic

Not suitable for commercial market. Shipping and storage problems, habitat contamination.

Craterellus cornucopioides

Good market mushroom

Rare in BC

Craterellus tubaeformis

Good market mushroom

Seems under-utilized in BC. Potential important commercial mushroom

Flammulina velutipes

Problematic

May be myotoxic and cardiotoxic . Wild-grown not used as food but it is available in cultivated form.

Gomphus clavatus

Good market mushroom

Rare. Considered endangered in many parts of Europe, extinct in Britain.

Grifola frondusus

Good market mushroom

Important commercially, rare in BC

Hericium abietis

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Hericium americanus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Hericium coralloides

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Hericium erinaceus

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom. Rare in BC

Hydnum repandum

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Hydnum umbilicatum

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Hypomyces lactifluorum *

Problematic

Important commercial species. Quality control issues. Causes occasional GI upset.

Imleria badius

Good market mushroom

Suitable for dried product

Lactarius deliciosus

Good market mushroom

Little known in BC

Lactarius deterrimus

Good market mushroom

Little known in BC

Lactarius rubrilacteus

Good market mushroom

Little known in BC

Laetiporus conifericola *

High risk, not suitable

Quality control problems. Causes occasional GI upset. Only youngest growth stage is safe and desirable. Was called L. sulphureus

Laetiporus gilbertsonii *

High risk, not suitable

Quality control problems. Causes occasional GI upset. Only youngest growth stage is safe and desirable. Was called L. sulphureus

Leccinum aurantiacum *

High risk, not suitable

Causes occasional GI upset.

Leccinum scabrum*

High risk, not suitable

Causes occasional GI upset.

Leccinum species *

High risk, not suitable

Cause occasional GI upset.

Lepista nuda

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown, habitat contamination.

Lepista praemagna

Little known

Little known in BC, traditional use.

Lyophyllum decastes

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown, habitat contamination.

Morchella spp. *

problematic

Important commercial mushroom especially suitable for dried product. Toxic raw, habitat contamination and quality control issues.

Phaeolepiota aurea*

High risk, not suitable

Causes frequent GI upset, habitat contamination.

Pleurocybella porrigens *

High risk, not suitable

Caused fatalities in Japan.

Pleurotus ostreatus

problematic

Competes with cultivated Oyster mushrooms.

Pluteus cervinus

Little known

Identification issues, not desirable.

Polyozellus atrolazulinus

Good market mushroom

Was Polyozellus multiplex. Conservation status of concern, uncertain due to lack of distribution data.

Polyozellus marymargaretae

Good market mushroom

Was Polyozellus multiplex. Conservation status of concern, uncertain due to lack of distribution data.

Rozites caperata

Little known

Identification problems, tolerances unknown

Russula xerampelina

Little known

Identification issues, tolerances unknown

Sarcodon imbricatus

Little known

Identification issues, not desirable.

Sparassis crispa

Good market mushroom

 

Suillus borealis

Little known

Suitable for dried product

Suillus brevipes

Little known

Suitable for dried product

Suillus granulatus

Little known

Suitable for dried product

Suillus lakei

Little known

Suitable for dried product

Suillus luteus

Little known

Suitable for dried product

Suillus species

Little known

Suitable for dried product

Suillus subolivaceus

Little known

Suitable for dried product

Tricholoma flavovirens*  or Tricholoma equestre*

High risk, not suitable

Caused fatalities in France

Tricholoma magnivelare

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Tricholoma populinum

Little known

Little known in BC, traditional use.

Tuber gibbosum

Good market mushroom

Important commercial mushroom

Verpa bohemica

High risk, not suitable

 

 

Wild mushroom species that may be considered too high risk to be marketed Commercially or that may need special standards or labelling

 Armillaria species, Honey mushrooms: Frequently implicated with problems if over-mature and/or under-cooked. Accurate identification is critical because some dangerous mushrooms have similar growth habit and occur in the same habitat. These should be considered as high risk of causing illness.

Hypomyces lactifluorum, Lobster mushroom: Frequently implicated with problems if over-mature and/or under-cooked or with excessive or repeated consumption. Individual intolerance is apparent in some people. This is already a well established market mushroom sold fresh and dried. Lobster mushrooms sold fresh should have labels directing they be cooked before eating.

Laetiporus species, Chickens of the woods:  Usually marketed when over-mature and tough and unpalatable. Frequently causes gastrointestinal distress especially if undercooked. Only the very youngest and softest parts are edible and desirable. These should be considered as high risk of causing illness.

Leccinum species, rough stemmed boletes: Many cases of gastrointestinal upset are reported for various species. Individual intolerance may be common. The entire genus should be considered high risk of causing illness especially when fresh.

Morchella species sold fresh should have labels directing they be cooked before eating.

Phaeolepiota aurea, Gold-cap: Individual intolerance is frequent. These should be considered as high risk of causing illness.

Pleurocybella porrigens, Angel wings: This species was implicated in fatal poisonings in Japan. These should be considered as high risk of causing illness.

Tricholoma equestre or Tricholoma flavovirens, Man on horseback: In France these were implicated in fatal poisonings. These should be considered as high risk of causing illness.

 

Edible BC mushroom species that may have sustainability and conservation concerns

Craterellus cornucopioides is known only from a small area on southern Vancouver Island. Imported material apparently from California and Oregon appears in our markets at times.

Gomphus clavatus seems rare in BC and has been red-listed in many parts of Europe due to decline or extirpation. An old-growth associated mushroom.

 Grifola frondusus is only known in BC from Vancouver, Victoria and Greenwood in the Boundary district.

Hericium erinaceus is only known from the Salish Sea and southern Vancouver Island on Garry oak and broadleaf maple.

Polyozellus atrolazulinus and Polyozellus marymargaretae are recently recognized old-growth associated species with unknown distribution and range. Previously both were known as Polyozellus multiplex considered rather uncommon and locally abundant in only very few areas.

 

Table 3: Anomalous Edible Mushroom Poisoning

Mushroom involved

Type of syndrome

Time of onset and notes

Symptoms

Armillaria species

 

Gastrointestinal upset

1 hour  to 5 hours

Raw or undercooked or when over-mature.

Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

Hypomyces lactifluorum

 

Gastrointestinal upset

30 minutes to several hours. Undercooked or overmature

Severe gastrointestinal distress, cramping, disoriented, sweating, weak.

Laetiporus sulphureus and Laetiporus conifericola

 

Gastrointestinal upset, neurotoxic

Gastrointestinal 5 to 45 minutes. Undercooked or overmature.

Neurotoxic about one hour after eating raw, in child.

Causes nausea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, headache and fatigue, tingling of extremities.

 Also disorientation, ataxia, hallucinations in child.

Leccinum species

 

Gastrointestinal upset

 

1 to 5 hours

May cause upset even if well cooked, exact species involved often unknown.

Diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, sweating and dry mouth, malaise, headache and dizziness.

Lentinula edodes

 

Skin rash and gastrointestinal upset

20 minutes to several hours

Fresh cultivated mushrooms eaten raw or undercooked

Flagellate erythema (hives-like rash in streaks), Gastrointestinal upset, chills, disoriented, headache, muscle spasms, unconscious, weak, difficulty breathing

Morchella species

 

Gastrointestinal upset

5 to 45 minutes

Toxic when eaten raw, alcohol consumed may also cause problems.

Nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain and cramping.

Phaeolepiota aurea

Gastrointestinal upset

30 minutes to 2 hours

Intolerance in certain individuals is common

Gastrointestinal upset with severe nausea.

Pleurocybella porrigens

Encephalopathy: Deaths reported in Japan

2 to 3 weeks

Patients all older males with kidney disease, most had received dialysis prior to ingestion.

Tremor, weakness of extremities, disturbance of consciousness, intractable seizures; cerebral cortex lesions.

Tricholoma equestre or flavovirens

Rhabdomyolysis: Deaths reported in France

1 to 4 days following repeated meals (3 or more) over two weeks or more.

Fatigue, muscle weakness and pain, anorexia, nausea, profuse sweating, myogloburia; kidney failure.

 

Table 4: Some edible mushrooms with common names and life style or trophic mode

Latin Name

Common Names

Comments

Agaricus augustus

The Prince

Saprotroph

Agaricus campestris

Meadow mushroom

Saprotroph

Armillaria species *

Honey mushrooms *

Wood decay

Boletus edulis group     

King bolete, Cep, Porcini

Ectomycorrhizal

Boletus fibrillosus

Dark king bolete

Ectomycorrhizal

Boletus mirabilis

Admirable Bolete

Ectomycorrhizal

Boletus rex-veris

Spring king bolete

Ectomycorrhizal

Boletus zelleri

Zeller’s bolete

Ectomycorrhizal

Cantharellus cascadensis

Cascade chamterelle

Ectomycorrhizal

Cantharellus formosus

Golden Chanterelle

Ectomycorrhizal

Cantharellus roseocanus

Rainbow Chanterelle

Ectomycorrhizal

Cantherellus subalbidus

White chanterelle

Ectomycorrhizal

Catathelasma imperialis

Giant Cat

Ectomycorrhizal 

Chlorophyllum brunneum

Shaggy parasol

Saprotroph

Chlorophyllum olivieri

Shaggy parasol

Saprotroph

Chlorophyllum rachodes

Shaggy parasol

Saprotroph

Clitopilus prunulus

Sweetbread mushroom

Saprotroph

Coprinus comatus

Shaggy Mane

Saprotroph

Craterellus cornucopioides

Black chanterelle

Ectomycorrhizal

Craterellus tubaeformis

Winter Chanterelle, Yellow Foot

Ectomycorrhizal

Flammulina velutipes

Enoke, Enoketake

Wood decay

Gomphus clavatus

Pig’s ear gomphus

Ectomycorrhizal

Grifola frondusus

Maitake

Wood decay

Hericium abietis

Bear’s Head or Lion’s Mane

Wood decay

Hericium americanus

Bear’s Head or Lion’s Mane

Wood decay

Hericium coralloides

Bear’s Head or Lion’s Mane

Wood decay

Hericium erinaceus

Bear’s Head or Lion’s Mane

Wood decay

Hydnum repandum

Hedgehog, Sweet Tooth

Ectomycorrhizal

Hydnum umbilicatum

Belly-button Hedgehog

Ectomycorrhizal

Hypomyces lactifluorum *

Lobster mushroom *

Parasite on Russula

Lactarius deliciosus

Orange Milkcap

Ectomycorrhizal

Lactarius deterrimus

Spruce Orange Milkcap

Ectomycorrhizal

Laetiporus conifericola *

Chicken of the Woods *

Wood decay

Laetiporus gilbertsonii *

Chicken of the Woods *

Wood decay

Leccinum aurantiacum *

Orange Cap bolete *

Ectomycorrhizal

Leccinum scabrum*

Birch bolete*

Ectomycorrhizal

Leccinum species *

Rough stem boletes *

Ectomycorrhizal

Lepista nuda

Blewit

Saprotroph

Lepista praemagna

Giant blewit

Saprotroph

Lyophyllum decastes

Fried Chicken mushroom

Saprotroph

Morchella spp. *

Morels *

Saprotroph

Phaeolepiota aurea*

Gold-cap*

Saprotroph

Pleurocybella porrigens *

Angels’ Wings *

Wood decay

Pleurotus ostreatus

Oyster mushroom

Wood decay

Pluteus cervinus

Deer mushroom

Wood decay

Polyozellus atrolazulinus

Blue or Purple Chanterelle

Ectomycorrhizal

Polyozellus marymargaretae

Blue or Purple Chanterelle

Ectomycorrhizal

Rozites caperata

Gypsy mushroom

Ectomycorrhizal

Russula xerampelina

Shrimp mushroom

Ectomycorrhizal

Sarcodon imbricatus

Hawk’s wing, scaly hedgehog

Ectomycorrhizal

Sparassis crispa

Cauliflower mushroom

Root parasite?

Suillus brevipes

Short-stemmed slippery jack

Ectomycorrhizal

Suillus granulatus

Granulated slippery jack

Ectomycorrhizal

Suillus lakei

Lake’s bolete

Ectomycorrhizal

Suillus luteus

Slippery jack

Ectomycorrhizal

Suillus subolivaceus

Slippery Jill

Ectomycorrhizal

Tricholoma flavovirens *

Man on Horseback *

Ectomycorrhizal

Tricholoma magnivelare

Pine mushroom, Matsutake

Ectomycorrhizal

Tricholoma populinum

Big sandy

Ectomycorrhizal

Tuber gibbosum

Oregon white truffle

Ectomycorrhizal

Verpa bohemica

Early morel

Ectomycorrhizal

 

Table 5: Scientific names of BC’s edible mushrooms

 Here are current names for BC edible fungi, from Kroeger & Berch 2017 with some additions. Names conform to Index Fungorum. Scientific names for fungi are rapidly changing as genetic studies reveal how different species are related or not. Many mushrooms we knew by familiar European names are being recognized as new species native to this region.

Mushroom name and authority

Family

comments

Agaricus arvensis Schaeff.

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus augustus Fr.

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus bernardii Quel.

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Sacc.

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus campestris Fr.

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus subrufescens Peck

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus subrutilescens (Kauffman) Hotson & D.E. Stuntz

Agaricaceae

 

Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeff.

Agaricaceae

also as A.haemorrhoidarius

Agaricus sylvicola (Vittad.) Peck

Agaricaceae

as Agaricus silvicola

Armillaria cepistipes Velen.

Physalacriaceae

 

Armillaria gallica Marxm. & Romagn.

Physalacriaceae

 

Armillaria gemina Berube & Dessur.

Physalacriaceae

 

Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm.

Physalacriaceae

 

Armillaria nabsnona T.J. Volk & Burds.

Physalacriaceae

 

Armillaria ostoyae (Romagn.) Herink

Physalacriaceae

 

Armillaria sinapina Bérubé & Dessur.

Physalacriaceae

 

Armillaria solidipes Peck

Physalacriaceae

 

Aureoboletus flaviporus (Earle) Klofac

Boletaceae

as Boletus

Aureoboletus mirabilis (Murrill) Halling

Boletaceae

as Boletus

Boletus aereus Bull.

Boletaceae

 

Boletus barrowsii Thiers & A.H. Sm.

Boletaceae

 

Boletus coniferarum Lebedeva

Boletaceae

 

Boletus edulis Bull.

Boletaceae

 

Boletus erythropus Pers.

Boletaceae

 

Boletus ferrugineus Schaeff.

Boletaceae

Boletus spadiceus Schaeff.

Boletus fibrillosus Thiers

Boletaceae

 

Boletus regineus Arora & Simonini

Boletaceae

 

Boletus rubriceps D. Arora & J.L.Frank

Boletaceae

 

Boletus smithii Thiers

Boletaceae

 

Boletus subtomentosus L.

Boletaceae

 

Butyriboletus appendiculatus (Schaeff.) D. Arora & J.L. Frank

Boletaceae

as Boletus

Cantharellus californicus Arora & Dunham

Cantharellaceae

 

Cantharellus cascadensis J.S. Dunham, O’Dell & R. Molina

Cantharellaceae

 

Cantharellus cibarius Fr.

Cantharellaceae

 

Cantharellus formosus Corner

Cantharellaceae

 

Cantharellus pallens Pilat

Cantharellaceae

IF Cantharellus cibarius var. pallens

Cantharellus roseocanus (Redhead, Norvell & Danell) Redhead, Norvell & Moncalvo

Cantharellaceae

 

Cantharellus subalbidus A.H. Sm. & Morse

Cantharellaceae

 

Catathelasma imperiale (Quél.) Singer 

Tricholomataceae

 

Catathelasma ventricosum (Peck) Singer

Tricholomataceae

 

Chlorophyllum brunneum (Farl. & Burt) Vellinga

Agaricaceae

also as Lepiota

Chlorophyllum olivieri (Barla) Vellinga

Agaricaceae

 

Chlorophyllum rachodes (Vittad.) Vellinga

Agaricaceae

also as Lepiota, as Macrolepiota rhacodes

Clitocybe praemagna (Murrill) H.E. Bigelow & A.H. Sm.

Tricholomataceae

As Lepista

Clitopilus prunulus (Scop.) P. Kumm.

Entolomataceae

 

Coprinus comatus (O.F. Müll.) Pers.

Agaricaceae

 

Cortinarius caperatus (Pers.) Fr.

Cortinariaceae

as Rozites caperata

Craterellus cornucopioides (L.) Pers.

Cantharellaceae

 

Craterellus tubaeformis (Fr.) Quél.

Cantharellaceae

as Cantharellus tubaeformis, C.infundibuliformis

Flammulina populicola Redhead & R.H. Petersen

Physalacriaceae

as F. velutipes

Flammulina velutipes (Curtis) Singer

Physalacriaceae

 

Gomphus clavatus (Pers.) Gray

Gomphaceae

as Cantharellus clavatus

Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) Gray

Meripilaceae

 

Hericium abietis (Weir ex Hubert) K.A. Harrison

Hericiaceae

 

Hericium americanum Ginns 

Hericiaceae

 

Hericium coralloides (Scop.) Pers.

Hericiaceae

also as Hericium ramosum

Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. 

Hericiaceae

 

Hydnum ellipsosporum Ostrow & Beenken

Hydnaceae

as Hydnum sp. F19678

Hydnum indurescens D. Hall & D.E. Stuntz

Hydnaceae

Sarcodon indurescens (D. Hall & D.E. Stuntz) Stalpers

Hydnum repandum L.

Hydnaceae

as

Hydnum repandum variety albidum (Peck) Bres.

Hydnaceae

as Hydnum albidum

Hydnum repandum variety album (Quél.) Rea

Hydnaceae

 

Hydnum rufescens Pers.

Hydnaceae

as Hydnum repandum var. rufescens (Pers.) Barla

Hydnum subincarnatum K.A. Harrison

Hydnaceae

as Sarcodon

Hydnum umbilicatum Peck 

Hydnaceae

 

Hypomyces lactifluorum (Schwein.) Tul. & C. Tul.

Hypocreaceae

 

Imleria badius (Fr.) Vizzini

Boletaceae

As Boletus badius

Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray

Russulaceae

 

Lactarius deterrimus Gröger

Russulaceae

 

Lactarius rubrilacteus Hesler & A.H. Sm.

Russulaceae

 

Laetiporus conifericola  Burds. & Banik

Fomitopsidaceae

 

Laetiporus gilbertsonii Burds.

Fomitopsidaceae

 

Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill

Fomitopsidaceae

as Polyporus sulphureus (Bull.) Fr.

Leccinum alaskanum V.L. Wells & Kempton

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum arctostaphyli V.L. Wells & Kempton

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum aurantiacum (Bull.) Gray

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum clavatum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum discolor A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum fallax A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum fibrillosum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum holopus (Rostk.) Watling 

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum insigne A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum manzanitae Thiers 

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum ponderosum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum potteri A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum scabrum (Bull.) Gray

Boletaceae

also as Leccinum rotundifoliae, Leccinum oxydabile (Singer) Singer

Leccinum subtestaceum A.H. Sm., Thiers & Watling

Boletaceae

 

Leccinum versipelle (Fr. & Hök) Snell

Boletaceae

also as Leccinum atrostipitatum

Lepista glaucocana (Bres.) Singer

Tricholomataceae

 

Lepista irina (Fr.) H.E. Bigelow

Tricholomataceae

 

Lepista nuda (Bull.) Cooke

Tricholomataceae

as Clitocybe nuda (Fr.) H.E. Bigelow & A.H. Sm.

Lepista personata (Fr.) Cooke

Tricholomataceae

 

Lepista tarda (Peck) Murrill

Tricholomataceae

 

Leucangium carthusianum (Tul. & C. Tul.) Paol.

Helvellaceae

as Picoa carthusiana Tul. & C. Tul.

Lyophyllum decastes (Fr.) Singer

Lyophyllaceae

 

Marasmius oreades (Bolton) Fr.

Marasmiaceae

 

Morchella americana Clowez & Matherly

Morchellaceae

 

Morchella angusticeps Peck 

Morchellaceae

Recent revision, name now obsolete

Morchella conica Krombh. 

Morchellaceae

Recent revision, name now obsolete: equals M. esculenta

Morchella costata (Vent.) Pers.

Morchellaceae

 

Morchella crassipes (Vent.) Pers.

Morchellaceae

Recent revision, name now obsolete

Morchella deliciosa Fr.

Morchellaceae

Recent revision, name now obsolete

Morchella elata Fr.

Morchellaceae

Recent revision, name now obsolete

Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers.

Morchellaceae

Recent revision, name now obsolete

Morchella frustrata M.Kuo

Morchellaceae

 

Morchella importuna M. Kuo, O’Donnell & T.J. Volk

Morchellaceae

 

Morchella snyderi M.Kuo & Methven

Morchellaceae

 

Morchella tridentina Bres.

Morchellaceae

as Morchella conica

Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt.) Maire

Agaricaceae

 

Pleurocybella porrigens (Pers.) Singer

Marasmiaceae

also as Pleurotus albolanatus

Pleurotus dryinus Pers.) P. Kumm. 

Pleurotaceae

 

Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm.

Pleurotaceae

 

Pleurotus populinus O. Hilber & O.K. Mill.

Pleurotaceae

 

Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél.

Pleurotaceae

 

Pleurotus subareolatus Peck 

Pleurotaceae

 

Pluteus atromarginatus (Konrad) Kühner

Pluteaceae

 

Pluteus cervinus (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.

Pluteaceae

also as Pluteus atricapillus

Polyozellus atrolazulinus Trudell & Kõljalg

Thelephoraceae

 

Polyozellus marymargaretae Beug & I. Saar

Thelephoraceae

 

Polyozellus multiplex (Underw.) Murrill

Thelephoraceae

 

Russula xerampelina (Schaeff.) Fr.

Russulaceae

 

Russula xerampelina variety isabelliniceps C. Roberts nom prov

Russulaceae

 

Sarcodon imbricatus (L.) P. Karst.

Bankeraceae

 

Sparassis crispa (Wulfen) Fr.

Sparassidaceae

 

Stropharia rugosoannulata Farl. ex Murrill

Strophariaceae

 

Suillus albidipes (Peck) Singer

Suillaceae

 

Suillus albivelatus A.H. Sm., Thiers & O.K. Mill.

Suillaceae

 

Suillus amabilis (Peck) Singer

Suillaceae

as Boletinus amabilis (Peck) Snell

Suillus borealis A.H. Sm., Thiers & O.K. Mill.

Suillaceae

 

Suillus brevipes (Peck) Kuntze

Suillaceae

 

Suillus caerulescens A.H. Sm. & Thiers 

Suillaceae

 

Suillus cavipes (Opat.) A.H. Sm. & Thiers

Suillaceae

 

Suillus decipiens (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Kuntze

Suillaceae

 

Suillus flavidus (Fr.) J. Presl

Suillaceae

 

Suillus flavogranulatus A.H. Sm., Thiers & O.K. Mill.

Suillaceae

 

Suillus glandulosipes Thiers & A.H. Sm.

Suillaceae

 

Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel

Suillaceae

 

Suillus grevillei (Klotzsch) Singer

Suillaceae

 

Suillus hirtellus (Peck) Snell

Suillaceae

 

Suillus lakei (Murrill) A.H. Sm. & Thiers

Suillaceae

 

Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel

Suillaceae

 

Suillus neoalbidipes M.E. Palm & E.L. Stewart

Suillaceae

 

Suillus ochraceoroseus (Snell) Singer

Suillaceae

as Fuscoboletinus

Suillus pictus (Peck) A.H. Sm. & Thiers

Suillaceae

as Boletinus

Suillus placidus (Bonord.) Singer

Suillaceae

 

Suillus ponderosus A.H. Sm. & Thiers

Suillaceae

 

Suillus pseudobrevipes A.H. Sm. & Thiers

Suillaceae

 

Suillus punctatipes (Snell & E.A. Dick) Singer

Suillaceae

 

Suillus punctipes (Peck) Singer

Suillaceae

 

Suillus sibiricus  (Singer) Singer

Suillaceae

 

Suillus subaureus (Peck) Snell

Suillaceae

 

Suillus subolivaceus A.H. Sm. & Thiers

Suillaceae

 

Suillus tomentosus (Kauffman) Singer

Suillaceae

 

Suillus umbonatus E.A. Dick & Snell

Suillaceae

 

Suillus variegatus (Sw.) Richon & Roze

Suillaceae

as Suillus tomentosus F31018

Suillus viscidus  (L.) Roussel

Suillaceae

as Fuscoboletinus aeruginascens

Tricholoma caligatum (Viv.) Ricken

Tricholomataceae

 

Tricholoma equestre (L.) P. Kumm.

Tricholomataceae

also as Tricholoma flavovirens

Tricholoma magnivelare (Peck) Redhead

Tricholomataceae

 

Tricholoma populinum J.E. Lange

Tricholomataceae

 

Tuber aestivum Vittad.

Tuberaceae

cultured

Tuber anniae W. Colgan & Trappe

Tuberaceae

 

Tuber besseyi Gilkey

Tuberaceae

 

Tuber beyeleri Trappe, Bonito & Guevara

Tuberaceae

 

Tuber borchii Vittad.

Tuberaceae

cultured ?

Tuber gibbosum Harkn.

Tuberaceae

 

Tuber giganteum Gilkey

Tuberaceae

 

Tuber melanosporum Vittad.

Tuberaceae

cultured

Tuber oligospermum (Tul. & C. Tul.) Trappe

Tuberaceae

as Tuber asa Tul. & C. Tul.

Tuber oregonense Trappe, Bonito & P. Rawl.

Tuberaceae

 

Tuber rapaeodorum  Tul. & C. Tul.

Tuberaceae

as Tuber rufum Picco

Tuber rufum Picco

Tuberaceae

UBC deposit pending

Tuber uncinatum Chatin

Tuberaceae

 

Verpa bohemica (Krombh.) J. Schröt.

Morchellaceae

 

Verpa conica (O.F. Müll.) Sw.

Morchellaceae

 

Xerocomellus chrysenteron (Bull.) Šutara

Boletaceae

as Boletus

Xerocomellus  truncatus (Singer, Snell & E.A. Dick) Klofac

Boletaceae

as Boletus

Xerocomellus  zelleri (Murrill) Klofac

Boletaceae

as Boletus

 

A Bibliography for Commercial wild mushrooms

Acker & K. Russell (1986) Harvesting wild edible mushrooms in Washington: An issue paper. The Edible Mushroom Task Group. Washington.

J.F. Ammirati (1985) Poisonous Mushrooms of the Northern United States and Canada. University of Minnesota Press.

Anonymous (1994) Workshop results- Pine Mushroom Task Force. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

Anonymous (2003) Abstracts: The third international workshop on edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. Victoria, B.C.

D. Arora (1986) Mushrooms Demystified. Ten Speed Press.

D. Arora (1991) All That The Rain Promises and More… Ten Speed Press.

D. Arora (2008) California porcini: three new taxa, observations on their harvest, and the tragedy of no commons. Economic Botany 62 (3): 356-375.

A. Bazzicalupo et al. (2018) White paper on strategies to reduce risks and expand appreciation of foraged wild mushrooms. (https://www.namyco.org/docs/EdiblePoisonousReport20170914.pdf).

BC Ministry of Forests and Range(2010) Harvesting edible wild mushrooms in BC. https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/publications/00028/harvest.htm (Jul 12, 2017).

D.R. Benjamin (1995) Mushrooms: Poisons and Panaceas. A Handbook for Naturalists, Mycologists and Physicians. W.H. Freeman and Company.

S. M. Berch and A.M. Wiensczyk (2001) Ecological description and classification of some Pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare) habitat in British Columbia. Ministry of Forests, Research Program, Research Report No. 19. Victoria.

S. M. Berch and W. Cocksedge (2003) Commercially important wild mushrooms and fungi of British Columbia: What the buyers are buying. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

M. Beug. (2016). Mushroom poisoning in North America, summary of voluntary reporting and news articles for 2015 and 2016. http://www.namyco.org/toxicology_reports.php (May 7, 2017).

M. Beug, M. Shaw, & K. Cochran (2006). Thirty-plus years of mushroom poisoning: Summary of the approximately 2,000 reports in the NAMA case registry. McIlvainea 16:47-68.

E. J. H. Corner (1966) A Monograph of Cantharelloid Fungi. Oxford University Press.

T. Ehlers, S. Berch and R. Winder (2010) Pacific Golden Chanterelle (Cantharellus formosus) Ecology and Productivity in the Nimpkish Valley, Northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Draft Report

T. Ehlers & T. Hobby (2010) The chanterelle mushroom harvest on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia: Factors relating to successful commercial development. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management 11:72-83.

F.B.M. Consulting Ent. (1989) The harvesting of edible wild mushrooms in British Columbia. In: Integrated Resources Branch, B.C.F.S., editor. BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria BC.

S. Gamiet, H. Redenour and F. Philpot (1998). An overview of pine mushrooms in the Skeena-Bulkley Region. Northwest Institute for Bioregional Research, Smithers, B.C.

N. de Geus (ed.), S.A. Redhead & B. Callan (1992) Wild mushroom harvesting discussion session minutes. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

N. de Geus (ed.) (1995) Summary of public response: Pine Mushroom Task Force recommendations. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

N. de Geus (1995) Botanical forest products in British Columbia: An overview. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

N. de Geus, Scott Redhead and Brenda Callan (1992) Wild mushroom harvesting discussion session minutes. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

N. de Geus & S. Berch (1997) Tne Pine Mushroom industry in British Columbia. In Mycology in sustainable development; expanding concepts, vanishing borders. Ed. M. Palm & I. Capela. 55-67

J. Ginns (2017) Polypores of British Columbia (Fungi: Basidiomycota). Prov. B.C. Victoria. B.C. Tech. Rep. 104.

D. Hosford, D. Pilz, R. Molina and M. Amaranthus (1997) Ecology and management of the commercially harvested American Matsutake mushroom. USDA-FS PNW-GTR-412. Portland.

J.M. Kranabetter and P. Kroeger (2001) Ectomycorrhizal mushroom response to partial cutting in a western hemlock/western redcedar forest. Can. J. For. Res. 31: 978–987.

J. M. Kranabetter, J. Friesen, S. Gamiet & P. Kroeger (2005) Ectomycorrhizal mushroom distribution by stand age in western hemlock-lodgepole pine forests of northwestern British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res. 35: 1527-1539.

J. M. Kranabetter, H. Williams & J. Morin (2009) Ecological descriptions of Pacific golden chanterelle (Cantharellus formosus) habitat and estimates of its extent in Haida Gwaii. B.C. Journal of Ecosystems and Management. 10: 59-67.

J. M. Kranabetter, R. Trowbridge, A. Macadam, D. McLennan and J. Friesen (2002). Ecological descriptions of pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare) habitat and estimates of its extent in northwestern British Columbia. For. Ecol. Manage. 158: 249–261.

P.Kroeger (1991). ‘Yumm,’ said the police chief. Mushroom The Journal 34.

P. Kroeger & S. Berch (2017) Macrofungus species of British Columbia. Prov. B.C. Victoria. B.C. Tech. Rep. 108.

P. Kroeger, B. Kendrick, O. Ceska & C. Roberts (2012). The Outer Spores: Mushrooms of Haida Gwaii. Mycologue Publications and Haida Gwaii Museum.

L. Liegel, D. Pilz, & T. Love (1998). The MAB Mushroom Study: Background and concerns. In Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. Special Report Number 9: 3-7.

L. Liegel, D. Pilz, T. Love & E. Jones(1998). Integrating biological, socioeconomic, and managerial methods and results in the MAB Mushroom Study. In Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. Special Report Number 9: 26-33.

G. Lincoff and D.H. Mitchel (1977) Toxic and Hallucinogenic Mushroom Poisoning: A Handbook for Physicians and Mushroom Hunters. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.

T. Love, E. Jones & L. Liegel (1998) Valuing the temperature rainforest: Wild mushrooming on the Olympic Peninsula Biosphere Reserve. In Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. Special Report Number 9: 16-25.

D. Malloch (1976) Morels: A gourmet’s delight. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1581.

M. McKenny, D. Stuntz and J. Ammirati (1994) The New Wild Savory Mushroom. Douglas and McIntyre.

H. McLean, S. Peck, G. Eng, R. Mathias, W. Black& G. Morgan (1987). Epidemiologic notes and reports restaurant-associated botulism from mushrooms bottled in-house — Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 36:103.

R. Molina, T. O’Dell, D. Luoma, M. Amaranthus, M. Castellano and K. Russell (1993) Biology, ecology, and social aspects of wild edible mushrooms in the forests of the Pacific Northwest: A preface to managing commercial harvest. USDA-FS PNW-GTR-309 Portland.

O. Persson and B. Mossberg (1997) The Chanterelle Book. Ten Speed Press Berkeley USA

M. J. Peterson, R. Outerbridge and John Dennis (2000) Chanterelle productivity on burned and unburned regeneration sites in the vicinity of Skidegate Lake on Moresby Island. Province of British Columbia Ministry of Forests.

D. Pilz, F.D. Brodie, S. Alexander & R. Molina (1998). Relative value of chanterelles and timber as commercial forest products. In Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. Special Report Number 9: 14-15.

D. Pilz, R. Molina, & L. Liegel (1998). Biological productivity of chanterelle mushrooms in and near the Olympic Peninsula Biosphere Reserve. In Ambio: A Journal of the Human Environment. Special Report Number 9: 8-13.

D. Pilz, L. Norvell, E. Danell and R. Molina (2003) Ecology and management of commercially harvested chanterelle mushrooms. USDA-FS PNW-GTR-576 Portland.

D. Pilz, R. Molina, and J. Mayo (2006) Effects of thinning young forests on chanterelle mushroom production. Journal of Forestry 104:9–14.

D. Pilz, R. McLain, S. Alexander, L. Villareal-Ruiz, S. Berch, T. Wurz, C. Parks, E. McFarlane, B. Baker, R. Molina and J. Smith (2007) Ecology and Management of Morels Harvested from the Forests of Western North America. USDA-FS PNW-GTR-710 Portland.

S.A. Redhead (1997) The Pine Mushroom industry in Canada and the United States: Why it exists and where it is going. In Mycology in sustainable development; expanding concepts, vanishing borders. Ed. M. Palm & I. Capela. 15-54

S.A. Redhead, L. Norvell and E. Danell (1997) Cantharellus formosus and the Pacific golden Chanterelle harvest in Western North America. Mycotaxon 65: 285-322.

J. Duane Sept (2006) Common Mushrooms of the Northwest. Calypso Press.

S. Tedder, D. Mitchell and R. Farran (2000) Seeing the Forest Beneath the trees: The Social and Economic Potential of Non-timber Forest Products and Services in the Queen Charlotte Islands/ Haida Gwaii. Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests, Victoria.

R. Trowbridge, A. Macadam, and M. Kranabetter (1999). Ecological description and classification of highly productive pine mushroom sites in northwestern British Columbia. Northwest Institute for Bioregional Research, Smithers, B.C.

S. Trudell and J. Ammirati (2009) Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest. Timber Press.

N.J. Turner and P.von Aderkas 2009. The North American Guide to Common Poisonous Plants and Mushrooms. Timber Press.

 

Photographs